00:00, 09 апреля 2013, Научные статьи

Ученые записки университета имени П.Ф. Лесгафта

Предпочтения учащихся относительно целей физического воспитания

Авторы:
Чистяков Владимир Анатольевич, Kушнец Цезар
Источник:
Выпуск:
3 (97) 2013, 09 апреля 2013
Страницы:
109-115
Виды спорта:
Общеспортивная тематика
Рубрики:
Спортивная наука
Регионы:
РОССИЯ
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Аннотация

Мировой опыт, касающийся школьного физического воспитания, показывает снижение интереса к этому предмету. В связи с этим предпринимаются многочисленные меры с целью повышения мотивации и качества образования.

Предпочтения учащихся относительно целей физического воспитания

Аннотация

Мировой опыт, касающийся школьного физического воспитания, показывает снижение интереса к этому предмету. В связи с этим предпринимаются многочисленные меры с целью повышения мотивации и качества образования. Начиная с 2009 г., в Польше проводится очередная реформа, целью которой является улучшение качества образования через индивидуализацию процесса как основополагающего дидактического принципа. Зная ожидания учеников к данному предмету школьной программы, представляется возможным в процессе реформирования избежать расхождений между научной теорией и школьной практикой. С помощью модифицированной анкеты, разработанной Европейским физическим обществом, мы опросили 541 учащегося. Выявленная иерархия целей физического воспитания показывает, что самой важной целью для учащихся является подготовка к активному и здоровому образу жизни.

Ключевые слова: физкультура, обучение, физическая активность.

DOI: 10.5930/issn.1994-4683.2013.03.97.p109-115

PREFERENCES OF STUDENTS ON THE PURPOSE OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Cezary Kusnierz, the doctor of philosophy, Opole University of Technology, Faculty of Physical Education and Physiotherapy, Poland, Vladimir Anatolyevich Chistyakov, the doctor of pedagogical sciences, professor, The Lesgaft National State University of Physical Education, Sport and Health, St.-Petersburg

Annotation

The world experience concerning school physical education shows decrease in interest to this subject. In this regard, numerous measures for the purpose of motivation and quality of education increase are undertaken. Since 2009, in Poland the next reform which purpose is improvement of quality of education through process individualization as the fundamental didactic principle is carried out. Knowing expectations of pupils to this subject of the school program, it is obviously possible to avoid in the course of reforming divergences between the scientific theory and school practice. By means of the modified questionnaire developed by the European physical society, we interrogated 541 pupils. The revealed hierarchy of the purposes of physical education shows that the most important purpose for pupils is preparation to active and healthy lifestyle.

Keywords: physical education, teaching, physical activity.

INTRODUCTION

Changes initiated in Poland in the seventies of the twentieth century aimed to improve the educational process in accordance with the humanist conception of the theory of physical education by Maciej Demel (1973). The result of these actions is two reforms carried out in 1999 and 2009, which implement major changes in the school system. The former method for revising the school curriculum, focused on objectives, was replaced by a result-based method, a detailed description of skills, knowledge and expected students' attitudes toward the value of physical culture. Physical education program provides both, the graduate profile - a description of a student by the end of secondary education and a clear description of PE objectives for student and teacher. Despite these actions in the teachers' environment are observed criticisms on reforms carried out for 30 years in physical education at schools that brought not many changes. Indeed physical education can create space for confrontation on various teaching approaches. The final effect of the teaching process as a fulfillment of social expectations largely depends on teachers, on effective implementation of the curriculum objectives. The mission of physical education in the twenty-first century shall be the acquisition by students the skills necessary for practising sport and physical activity throughout life, to participate actively and fully in working lives, family life and leisure. Objectives entered in school curricula may significantly differ from student's expectations, and therefore, it appears advisable to learn opinions of school students on their desired objectives [1-12].

The objective of this research study is to learn opinions of elementary school students on their desired objectives of physical education.

In the research study were raised following research questions:

  1. Which of the objectives of physical education students consider as the most important?
  2. Does gender differentiate the hierarchy of objectives among students?
  3. Which of the presented four models of physical education is desired by students to be implemented during classroom activities?
  4. Will there be connections between the hierarchy of objectives presented by students and the selection of the desired model of physical education?

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The study involved 300 students of primary schools in Opole Voivodeship, including 160 girls and 140 boys in fifth and sixth grades. The purpose for selecting the oldest grades of primary school students was that they would be able to answer questions comprised in the research tool. Diagnostic survey with questionnaire technique was used as the research method. The research tool was a questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part contained thirteen objectives of physical education recognized by experts of the European Physical Education Association as the most important in European countries (Fisher, Repond, Diniz, 2011 in: Hard-man, Green, 2011). Respondents' task was to prioritize the objectives. The most important objective should be marked as 1, the next one 2, and so on. Second part of the questionnaire contained four modules of physical education classes described in keywords by Cruma (2007). Each of them represents distinct approach to the course, and students' task was to choose one module, which they appreciate to be implemented as part of physical education classes. This part of the questionnaire also sought to verify previous responses on the objectives hierarchy of this course. Selection of the dominant module of physical education can be a kind of confirmation or negation of previous choices. For the purpose of data analysis, percentages, arithmetic means and standard deviations were designated. To examine the statistically significant differences in answers of respondents, having regard to age and gender, the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U test were used.

RESULT ANALYSIS

Proper selection and then effective implementation of physical education objectives will equip students with skills that allow for lifelong satisfactory participation in physical culture. These competencies can be gained, based on implementation of teaching and upbringing actions and achievement of objectives, among which the European Physical Education Association identified thirteen that were considered as the most relevant. They were presented in the following manner:

  1. To encourage students to lead an active and healthy lifestyle.
  2. To ensure the well-being of students.
  3. To popularize among students values associated with participation in sports: solidarity and fair play.
  4. To ensure that the physical activity areas are safe for exercisers.
  5. To expand the potential of motor skills in students.
  6. To familiarize students with connections between physical education and other school courses.
  7. To promote social and cultural meaning of sports and physical activity among students.
  8. To develop students' self-assessment skills and the ability to assess other participants.
  9. To develop group management skills and the ability to lead others.
  10. To appreciate the importance of physical fitness and good health.
  11. To develop the ability to use and improve skills in specific types of physical activity.
  12. To shape civics and citizenship.
  13. To create opportunities for satisfactory participation in class activities for all students, regardless their capabilities, gender, social or cultural origin.

Analysis of students' responses indicates that they consider objective no. 1 as the most important (the lower the value of the arithmetic mean is, the higher the prioritization of the objective). Respondents considered that the major purpose for participation in the classroom is to be physically active and develop healthy lifestyle. Second priority in the hierarchy was the objective, which involves ensuring students' well-being during class activities. As third was indicated the objective covering safe participation in class activities. This selection proves students' need for safety, which can provide vital information for teachers. Among the five major objectives, at fourth place in the hierarchy was ranked the objective, which relates to factors extending motor skills. While at fifth position in the hierarchy was the objective of popularization among students values associated with participation in sports: solidarity and fair play. Respondents as distant to physical education considered other objectives. They concern on the issues of shaping civics and citizenship attitudes (the lowest priority), looking for connections between physical education and other class subjects, smoothing cultural and social diversity in class groups and developing self-assessment skills and group leadership abilities (table 1).

Answers of respondents were subject of detailed analysis performed according to gender. In the group of girls, the hierarchy is similar as in the one previously described for both genders together. Girls ranked the first five objectives with the same priorities; the only difference is seen among objectives of the lowest importance in the hierarchy (table 1).

In the group of boys, the prioritization is slightly different. The most important is the objective concerning safety during class activities (in the group of girls it was at third position).

However, the purpose - "to encourage students to lead an active and healthy lifestyle", which in the opinion of total sample of respondents was identified as the most important, in the group of boys was classified as third (table 1).

Prioritization performed by students demonstrate that students in primary school identify classroom lessons primarily with fun and safe participation in activities based on the principles of fair play. Students expect such class activities, which will allow them to develop physical abilities and give opportunity to participate in sports competition. Despite the high prioritization of the objective of encouraging students to lead an active and healthy lifestyle, the health benefits, also emphasized in the objective "recognize the importance fitness and health" were ranked among girls as tenth important factor, while boys assessed them even lower- on eleventh position. Based on the Mann-Whitney U test, a comparison according to gender was carried out. Statistically significant differences were only observed for the first objective (to encourage students to lead an active and healthy lifestyle), which turn out to be the most important factor for girls p=0.037838.

Table 1 - Objectives hierarchy of physical education

PE objectives

Arithmetic mean of priorities

Girls and boys together

Girls

Boys

To encourage students to lead an active and healthy lifestyle

1

1

3

To ensure the well-being of students

2

2

2

To popularize among students values associated with participation in sports: solidarity and fair play.

5

5

6

To ensure that the physical activity areas are safe for exercisers

3

3

1

To expand the potential of motor skills in students

4

4

4

To familiarize students with connections between physical education and other school courses

8

8

9

To promote social and cultural meaning of sports and physical activity among students

6

6

5

To develop students' self-assessment skills and the ability to assess other participants

7

7

7

To develop group management skills and the ability to lead others

10

10

8

To appreciate the importance of physical fitness and good health

9

9

11

To develop the ability to use and improve skills in specific types of physical activity

11

11

10

To shape civics and citizenship

13

13

13

To create opportunities for satisfactory participation in class activities for all students, regardless their capabilities, gender, social or cultural origin

12

12

12

Further part of the research study involved selection of one of the presented modules of physical education. Four different modules of the course were presented to students. A concise description of each module allows for quick reference to the content of classroom activities that can be performed in various manners and generate different educational effects.

I. Physical education as fun, recreation and entertainment.

II. Physical education as a course that shapes physical fitness and sporting skills (training).

III. Physical education as a course, where important factors are: discipline, order and progress monitoring.

IV. Physical education as education and upbringing for participation in physical culture.

The vast majority of respondents (57%) recognized the module no. I as the most desirable. This selection shows the desire to perform the class in the form of entertainment, recreation and fun. Students also expressed their willingness to shape physical fitness and to train their sporting skills during the classroom activities (35% - module no. II). The other two modules of physical education have not been identified by respondents as desirable for implementation (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. The vision of physical education in opinion of primary school students - total students

DISCUSSION

Scientific research indicates the fact that achieving by students the assumed objectives depends on the method of implementation of physical activities, and achieving their maximum performance depends on selection of the type of physical activity. Results obtained in the presented study on the hierarchy of objectives of physical education indicate a high level of awareness of students; selection of the first objective - as the most important one refers to their preparation for an active and healthy lifestyle, and it constitutes that the value system is shaped properly. The result is consistent with the educational actions that implement health education as a compulsory part of the physical. It is also a manifestation of well-conducted educational actions and implementation of the humanistic approach in physical education that was adopted in Poland. However, it should be noted that responses given by students should be regarded as proposals. In the context of this statement, discrepancies in answers among respondents should be emphasized. Despite the fact that students considered the first objective as the most important one, they supported, in 57%, the implementation of classes in the form of fun, recreation and entertainment (module no. I). Fourth module, proposed to students, which describes the course as education and upbringing for participation in physical culture, and selection of which shall confirm previous students' statements (selection of the objective no. 1 as the most important one) was chosen only by 3% of respondents. Based on this information, it can be assumed that students, despite their knowledge and acceptance of theoretical assumptions tend to choose classes without additional burden of learning, as it is in the case of theoretical classes. It can be also stated that the preferred by students module no. 1 of the course with hedonistic values indicates close relationship with the objective, prioritized as second in the hierarchy. This objective involves ensuring well-being for students. Physical games and plays contain a high load of positive emotions. Although the efficiency of educational interactions is smaller, they create for students' valuable educational opportunities for rest and relaxation. In the hierarchy of the most important objectives, the goal to extend the abilities of motor skills was ranked as third. It expresses students' desire to learn various forms of exercise and sports disciplines.

CONCLUSION

Research results presenting the objectives hierarchy of physical education in opinion of students have important implications for the theory and practice of physical education. Students prioritizing the objectives presented their own opinions and expectations for the class. Such information should interest not only teachers - implementers of the educational process, but also the decision-makers of curricula.

Analysis of the data gathered in this study paper leads to formulation of the following conclusions:

  1. Secondary school students considered as the most important objectives, implementation of which will ensure active and healthy lifestyle, well-being and will equip them with large scope of motor skills.
  2. The objective, which in the hierarchy was ranked as the top one, was more important for girls.
  3. Students expect that physical education will be implemented as fun, recreation and entertainment.
  4. Discrepancies were observed between the objectives recognizes as the most important and the preferred module of the course, which in the form of fun and recreation does not ensure the efficiency of educational interactions.

ЛИТЕРАТУРА

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  12. Tataruch, R. Praktyczna realizacja programu wychowania fizycznego aktywizujaca uczniow o sredniej i obnizonej sprawnosci ruchowej (Practical implementation of physical education curriculum activating students with average and low physical fitness) / R. Tataruch, R. Marcinow, M. Tataruch // Roczniki naukowe. - Poznaf, 2005. - № 54. - S. 159-166.

REFERENCES

  1. Davidenko, D.N., Polyanichko,M.V. and Chistyakov, V.A. (2007), "The content of the additional lessons physical education in high school as an independent academic discipline", Uchenye zapiski universiteta imeni P.F. Lesgafta, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 41-44.
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  3. Kostyuchenko,V.F. and Stepanov, V.S. (2005), "We know, but we do not do (to a problem of realization of improving potential of physical culture)", Uchenye zapiski universiteta imeni P.F. Lesgafta, Vol. 18, pp. 30-40.
  4. Mutko, V.L., Parshikova, N.V. and Chistyakov V.A. (2006), "The concept of extra physical education lessons and the first experience of its implementation", Uchenye zapiski universiteta imeni P.F. Lesgafta, Vol. 20, pp. 49-53.
  5. Tataruch, Rafal, Kostjuchenko, V.F. and Chistyakov, V.A. (2011), "The motivation level in training of young athletes", Uchenye zapiski universiteta imeni P.F. Lesgafta, Vol. 76, No. 6, pp. 159-164.
  6. Bielski, J. (1999), "Physical education in reformed education", Wychowanie fizyczne i zdrowotne, No. 3, pp. 2-3.
  7. Burtny, K. and Szczepafski, S. (2008), "Wybrane zagadnienia jakosci w wychow-aniu fizycznym", Politechnika Opolska, Opole, pp. 25-33.
  8. Czarniecka R. (2004), "Wychowanie fizyczne w perspektywie jutra", Wychowanie fizyczne i zdrowotne, No. 1, pp. 29-32.
  9. Demel, M. (1973), Critical essays on physical education, Sport i Turystyka, Warsaw, Poland.
  10. Kusnierz C. (2005), "O przyczynach niecheci mlodziezy szkolnej do lekcji wychow-ania fizycznego", Dydaktyka Wychowania Fizycznego W Swietle Wspolczesnych Potrzeb Edukacyjnych, AWF Wroclaw, pp. 129-135.
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Контактная информация:

Статья поступила в редакцию 11.03.2013.

Теги: физическая активность, исследование, обучение, физкультура.

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      Чистяков Владимир Анатольевич
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      Kушнец Цезар
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      Предпочтения учащихся относительно целей физического воспитания
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      Ученые записки университета имени П.Ф. Лесгафта
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      2013
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      № 3
      Сведения о местоположении
      C. 109-115
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      Спортивная наука
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    Чистяков Владимир Анатольевич — Предпочтения учащихся относительно целей физического воспитания // Ученые записки университета имени П.Ф. Лесгафта. - 2013. № 3. C. 109-115

    Kушнец Цезар — Предпочтения учащихся относительно целей физического воспитания // Ученые записки университета имени П.Ф. Лесгафта. - 2013. № 3. C. 109-115

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